Incap Capacitor
Incap Capacitor
Incap Capacitor


A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store electrical energy temporarily in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric (i.e. an insulator that can store energy by becoming polarized). The conductors can be thin films, foils or sintered beads of metal or conductive electrolyte, etc. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. A dielectric can be glass, ceramic, plastic film, air, vacuum, paper, mica, oxide layer etc. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. Instead, a capacitor stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field between its plates.

When there is a potential difference across the conductors (e.g., when a capacitor is attached across a battery), an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge +Q to collect on one plate and negative charge −Q to collect on the other plate. If a battery has been attached to a capacitor for a sufficient amount of time, no current can flow through the capacitor. However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, a displacement current can flow.
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An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, its capacitance. Capacitance is defined as the ratio of the electric charge Q on each conductor to the potential difference V between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad (F), which is equal to one coulomb per volt (1 C/V). Typical capacitance values range from about 1 pF (10−12 F) to about 1 mF (10−3 F).

The larger the surface area of the "plates" (conductors) and the narrower the gap between them, the greater the capacitance is. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow.

Just like the Resistor, the Capacitor, sometimes referred to as a Condenser, is a simple passive device that is used to “store electricity”. The capacitor is a component which has the ability or “capacity” to store energy in the form of an electrical charge producing a potential difference (Static Voltage) across its plates, much like a small rechargeable battery.

we have been producing high-efficiency mono and polycrystalline silicon PV modules in our production facility close to Kolkata, India. With our state-of-art manufacturing equipment from leading equipment suppliers, robust in-house processes and systems to drive manufacturing excellence and a global supply chain and sales and distribution network, we are the preferred choice for products and services with “Made in India” brand at global scale.

Our modules are known for the following features –

  1. Bloomberg Tier 1
  2. Positive power output tolerance (+5 Wp)
  3. Excellent low light response
  4. Product warranty of up to 12 years (on Eldora Ultima)
  5. Industry leading third party validation results
  6. Our current annual module production capacity of 200 MW is being ramped up to 500 MW by September 2015 and will be further expanded to 1.2 GW by 2018

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Given in inches and/or millimeters, a module’s size determines how many can fit in a given space, whether on a roof or on a ground- or pole-mount. If rack information is also known, the number of rows and each row length can be determined, based on the space intermodule clips add between modules (typically 1/2- to 1-inch per gap). Many manufacturers will also diagram the appropriate rail positioning for their modules, such as how much of the module can overhang the rails, and whether rails can cross the module in a landscape or portrait orientation or both. Be sure to follow the complete manufacturer’s instructions, as required by the National Electrical Code [110.3(B)].

Area Simply width times length, the area of a module is useful for checking power density (watts per ft.2). The total module area can be used along with site-specific data to calculate wind uplift forces and thus lag bolt requirements, or to calculate weight loading on a structure.

Thickness The frame thickness determines what rack components to use, like slip-in racks, or the required size of end and intermodule clips. Typically, thicker frames result in sturdier, although heavier, modules.

Weight Most permitting authorities will ask for basic structural engineering data for roof-mounted PV arrays, and there will be a limit to the weight that can be added to a roof structure. Module weight, rack weight, and engineering data will restrict the quantity of PV modules that can be installed. Crystalline, glazed modules with plastic backsheets typically weigh about 3 pounds per square foot.
Many jurisdictions allow PV modules to be installed on pitched residential roofs without a professionally engineered design, as long as there is only one layer of existing roofing material present.

Cells Cells will be either monocrystalline, polycrystalline, ribbon silicon, thin-film, or even multiple silicon layers, such as with Sanyo’s HIT module. Electrical characteristics, efficiencies, and appearance vary by cell type (see “A Peek Inside PV,” HP132).
Modules can have variable numbers of cells (usually between 36 and 108), with each crystalline cell operating at around 0.5 VDC, wired in series or series-parallel configurations. For example, a 72-cell module with all cells in series will operate at a voltage of about 36 volts. But a 72-cell module with two series strings of 36 cells paralleled will operate at about 18 V, perfect for charging a 12 V battery.

Cell Dimensions While all crystalline PV cells operate near 0.5 volts per cell, the diameter of the cell (normally 5 or 6 inches) will partially determine the current output of the cell, with larger cells producing higher current.

Glazing Most crystalline modules use low-iron, high-transparency tempered glass with an antireflection surface treatment. Low-iron glass has high clarity, and tempered glass shatters into small fragments, instead of sharp shards, if broken. Modules are strenuously tested for weight loading and impact resistance, and the front glazing of a module is extremely durable. Thin-film modules may use a polymer film (plastic) as the front sheet, which is designed for arrays in high-impact environments.


Harnessing the sun’s energy to light up homes and power other domestic applications, Incap Solar offers compact Solar Lighting Systems that are a low-cost and energy efficient alternative to conventionally powered home lighting facilities. These Lighting Systems are reliable and durable, providing excellent quality power supply without the hassle of grid-failure and frequent maintenance.

Ideal for application in areas where there is no local connection to grid electricity or regions that experience interrupted power supply, Incap Solar’s highly efficient Solar Home Lighting Systems have been touching the lives of millions across the globe.

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  1. Packaged 12 V systems contain Module, Battery, high Efficiency Electronics and Luminaires
  2. Ready-to-use kit is easy to install, easy to use, and requires negligible maintenance
  3. Works for 3-5 days even when there’s no sunshine Available in a wide range of models


  1. Homes
  2. Hospitals
  3. Offices
  4. Stores
  5. Banks
  6. Community Halls
  7. Educational Institutions


Incap Solar is a fully forward-integrated and comprehensive EPC solutions provider. We deploy world-class technology to design, install and commission benchmark solar projects worldwide. The highly skilled and dedicated EPC Team at Incap Solar ensures the completion of each solar plant from concept to commissioning including its operation and maintenance for the complete lifespan of the plant. The Company, over the years, has developed an internationally accredited expertise in engineering and technology, procurement and project management, construction and commissioning, with a strong command over asset management. Its business model ranges from the acquisition of developed sites to the servicing and maintenance of completed solar arrays throughout its lifespan.

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  1. Modular design with the option of customizing and adding on Solar Modules
  2. Designed to power fans, lights, TVs. Ideal for rural & suburban households
  3. Modules available with 2-4 hours/day back up in standalone mode along with 4-8 hours/day back up in hybrid mode
  4. Works on both Solar and AC mains power
  5. Protected against over load, short circuit, battery deep discharge, over charge and reverse flow conditions
  6. In-built AC mains battery charger and Solar Charge Controller with temperature compensation
  7. Table/ Wall mountable inverter




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